5 species & 1 hybrid in Australia
Bruguiera Lam. (1791) is an Indo-West Pacific genus within the small pantropic family Rhizophoraceae R.Br. that consists of 16 genera and around 120 species of trees and shrubs. Four genera are found exclusively in mangroves, and all are notably viviparous, including Rhizophora, Ceriops, Kandelia (DC.) Wight & Arn. and Bruguiera. Bruguiera are distinguished by calyces with 8-16, lanceolate, pointed lobes, 16-32 stamens, explosive pollen release, and distinctly viviparous propagule. The genus consists of two imperfect groupings of species, including: 4 species with large, mostly solitary flowers, namely B. exaristata, B. gymnorhiza, B. X rhynchopetala and B. sexangula; and, 3 species with 2-5 small flowers in each inflorescence, namely B. cylindrica, B. hainesii C.G.Rogers and B. parviflora. The hybrid is here described as B. X rhynchopetala (= B. gymnorhiza X B. sexangula) from stands in China and North-eastern Australia. All taxa except B. hainesii occur in Australia.
Derivation of Genus Name
Named in honour of the French biologist and explorer, Jean-Guillaume Bruguiére (1750-1798), famous for his naming of molluscs, marine life and plants.
Bruguiera are an Indo-West Pacific genus present in most mangrove stands from the East Coast of Africa through Asia and Indonesia, the Philippines, to the western Pacific Islands and northern Australia. Bruguiera gymnorhiza is considered one of the most broadly distributed by longitude of any mangrove species.
Key to Australia's Bruguiera Species
Five Bruguiera species and one hybrid are recognised in Australia’s mangroves across the northern coast from Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales. They are distinguished by the number of buds in inflorescences, bud size, ribbing on calyces, numbers of calyces, shape of petal lobes, presence and length of spines between petal lobes and bristles on petals lobes.